Pharmacological Interventions to Mitigate Immunodeficiency in Children with Congenital Heart Defects: A Review Article

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia

2 Technical Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

3 King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia

4 Pediatric Cardiology Consultant Pediatric Cardiologist, Heart Health Cardiac Center, King Saud Medical City, Saudi Arabia


Background _ Heart failure (HF) is a multifaceted clinical illness caused by several primary and secondary factors, and it follows similar patterns of disease progression. It is associated with significant rates of mortality, morbidity, and financial burden. Heart failure (HF) in children is mostly caused by the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD), with varying risks depending on the exact type of abnormality. The current management and therapy for heart failure in children are derived on treatment strategies used in adults.
Aim of Work – This review examines the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical presentations of heart failure (HF) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Additionally, it highlights the clinical, genetic, and molecular features that are shared or different between pediatric HF and adult HF. The aim of this study is to establish a structure for comprehending the constantly expanding genetic and molecular data within the complex context of comprehensive phenotyping.
Methods – We conducted a comprehensive search of relevant terms in ProQuest, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Scopus. We evaluate clinical and translational research investigations on heart failure in congenital heart disease, encompassing the analysis of genetic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic aspects.
Results – The review presents the key findings from the evaluated research, including:
• Etiology and epidemiology of heart failure in children with congenital heart disease
• Clinical presentations and phenotypes of pediatric HF compared to adult HF
• Genetic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic factors contributing to the development and progression of HF in CHD
• Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets identified through the molecular and genetic studies.
Conclusion – The paper presents unresolved challenges in the field of pediatric heart failure associated with congenital heart disease and provides directions for future research. This review aims to enhance our understanding of the complex interplay between genetic, molecular, and clinical factors in the context of heart failure in children with congenital heart abnormalities


Main Subjects

Volume 67, Issue 13 - Serial Number 13
In Loving Memory of Late Professor Doctor ””Mohamed Refaat Hussein Mahran””
December 2024
Pages 691-703
  • Receive Date: 11 June 2024
  • Revise Date: 24 June 2024
  • Accept Date: 04 July 2024