Seasonal Variations in The Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. 'Odorum' Leaves Essential Oil

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

2 Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University, 6th of October City, Giza, Egypt.

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University-Egypt, New Damietta 34518, Egypt. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University, 6th of October City, Giza, Egypt.

4 Medicinal Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, city, Egypt.

5 Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

6 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt


The current study aimed to show the seasonal fluctuations’ impact on the composition and bioactivities of the essential oil (EO) of Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. 'Odorum' (the Odorum) leaves. The four seasons steam-distilled EOs were examined chemically using GC/MS, followed by molecular networking, and tested biologically for antioxidant and an-timicrobial characteristics. The identified compounds (47) were molecularly docked against 11 antimicrobial targets. The highest yield was obtained in Winter (0.552 %). GC/MS analysis displayed monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and cin-namic acid derivatives as the major chemical classes in all seasons. Winter EO had the highest D-limonene level (66.37 %), and the strongest significant (p<0.05) antioxidant action in the assays of FRAP (41.81 ± 4.63 μM Trolox equivalent/ mg EO) and ORAC (438.00 ± 23.24 μM Trolox equivalent/ mg EO). E-methyl cinnamate predominated in EOs of sum-mer (47.78%) and fall (45.91%). Each season exhibited a predominant bactericidal/fungicidal effect against certain GIT pathogens; Summer EO had the most potent action against Bacillus subtilis (MIC and MBC= 1.97 µg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC and MBC = 125 µg/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC and MBC= 15.6 µg/ml), and Candida albicans (MIC = 1.97 µg/ml) and (MBC=3.9 µg/ml); while fall EO was the most powerful against Salmonella typhimurium (MIC= 1.97 µg/ml) and (MBC=3.9 µg/ml); whereas winter EO showed the utmost activity against Helicobacter pylori (MIC = 3.9 µg/ml) and (MBC =.7.8 µg/ml). Docking studies clarified 10 compounds with superior affinity than that of the native co-crystallized ligands mainly towards 3 target proteins. Hence, The Odorum EO could be strongly regarded as a prom-ising natural food preservative.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 21 May 2024
  • Receive Date: 10 March 2024
  • Revise Date: 12 May 2024
  • Accept Date: 19 May 2024