Effect of Synthesis Approach on Characteristics of CZTS Kesterite Layers for Photovoltaic Applications

Document Type : Review Articles


Department of Renewable Energy Science and Engineering, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PSAS), Beni-Suef University, 62511 Beni-Suef, Egypt.


The final features of the copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) kesterite absorber layer are significantly influenced by the preparation method, the resulting layer shape, structure, and electrical characteristics are closely related. The objective of this study is to optimize the operating conditions for the different preparation technique and to study their effects on the final characteristics of kesterite CZTS absorber layers. Three alternative methodological approaches are used and optimized to produce kieserite layers: hot injection, spray pyrolysis, and sol-gel techniques. Snow-crystal shapes, flower-petal shapes, and nanochannel shapes are some of the layer morphologies that have been observed. These morphologies clearly and directly affect other qualities, especially electrical properties. The synthesized CZTS layers exhibit carriers’ concentrations values ranging from 3.2078 x 1014 to 1.7248 x 1022 which are relatively higher than the reported values. CZTS layer prepared with spray pyrolysis technique has a higher carrier concentration value than the reported values, the reason for this behavior may be due to the absence of the undesired secondary phases. The preparation technique plays a key role in the final characteristics of the CZTS kesterite layer, with spray pyrolysis and sulfurization resulting in high conductive characteristics and enhanced carriers' concentration and conductivity values.


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