Preparation of amide oxime type surfactants and the chelation of copper and nickel cations

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig,Egypt

2 Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

3 Lecturer of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University


In this research, we present a novel approach for removal heavy metals from contaminated water using surfactants of the amide oxime type. The synthesis process consisted of several steps. Initially, we esterified the fatty acids with PEG (polyethylene glycol) molecules of varying molecular weights (600 and 1500) to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Subsequently, the FAMEs were subjected to cyano esterification by reacting them with acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of cyano ester products. To convert the cyano esters into amide oximes, we carried out an amidation step. During this process, the cyano esters underwent a reaction with hydroxylamine, leading to the formation of the desired amide oxime products. To confirm the chemical structure of the amide oxime, we employed various analytical techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. To evaluate the effectiveness of the amide oxime in binding metal ions, we conducted batch adsorption experiments. The quantity of heavy metals removed was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), a widely employed technique for such measurements. Our results indicate that the synthesized amide oxime exhibited a high affinity for heavy metals, such as nickel (43)% and copper (46.6)% . This proposed methodology offers a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater.