The Latest Techniques for Sustainable Management of Irrigation Water under the Egyptian Environmental Arid Conditions: A Review

Document Type : Review Articles


Water Relations and Field Irrigation Department, Agricultural and Biological Institute, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Postal Code: 12622


Egypt is currently facing many major challenges, foremost of which is the limited and scarcity of water resources, as the total of these resources reaches 72 billion cubic meters/year (the main part constitutes 55.5 billion cubic meters of the country's annual revenue). The Nile River according to the 1959 agreement between Egypt and Sudan, while groundwater, agricultural drainage water, rainwater ... etc. the other part). At a time when the stability of this limited amount of water is considered a serious problem with the continuous increase in the population, the construction of the Ethiopian dam on the course of the Blue Nile threatens the stability of this amount with a decrease, which will lead to a sharp decrease in the per capita share of water. Among the most important and best sustainable technologies that have shown positive effects in improving water productivity and that are compatible with the environment when applied are: (1) Pulse irrigation technology to improve water use efficiency and reduce water stress within the root zone, (2) Micro-drying technology to save 50% of water Irrigation, (3) Minimum tillage technology to improve soil environment and crop productivity with minimal environmental impact, (4) Automatic irrigation scheduling to reduce water stress within the root zone and save irrigation water (5) Innovating new irrigation network designs to improve irrigation efficiency (6) Laser leveling Land to improve water distribution efficiency, (7) Use of simulation models in irrigation and climate management, (8) Towards the application of organic mulching as a sustainable alternative to plastic mulch, (9) Addition of biochar as a soil amendment, (10) Addition of organic fertilizers to it. As a natural material to improve water use efficiency and as a source of nutrients.


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