Appraisal of Heavy Metal Content in the Groundwater at W-W El Minya District of Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


1 Geological science, National Research Centre

2 Land Reclamation & Drilling Manager in Savola Food Group Alexandria United Company for Land Reclamation (AUCR)

3 Assuit University


In W-W El Minya district, 33 groundwater samples were collected, analyzed, and rated using various indices to assess water quality. The samples exhibited weakly acidic to faintly alkaline pH levels, excessive mineralization, weak to moderate salinity, and high hardness. The prevailing ions in the samples were Cl, Na, HCO3, and SO4 due to silicate weathering and hydrolysis of evaporite minerals. However, the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limits for Ca, Na, and Cl contents were exceeded in some samples. Piper's graph showed that all samples were of the SO4. Na-Cl type. Among heavy metals, Cd was the most prevalent, with 36% of samples exceeding the WHO safe level and 18% exceeding Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) permissible values. The Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) indicated that 48% of samples were suitable for drinking, while the Heavy Metal Evaluation Index (HEI) showed negligible levels of heavy metal pollution. The health risk assessment revealed non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects of Cd in the contaminated water. The Corrosion Ratio (CR) index suggested that metallic pipes could contaminate water with heavy metals over time. The Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) approach estimated that groundwater supply in the area was only 20.6% of total precipitation. Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling showed that agricultural lands expanded in 2020 and 2022 compared to 2018. To prevent adverse effects on residents' health, it is recommended that contaminated water be treated for cadmium pollutants.


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