Phenolic Compounds From Ephedra Alata veill Growing in Libya and The Ameliorative Effect Towards CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Head of department of Phytochemistry and Plant Systematics,Division of Pharmaceutical Industries,National Research Center, El Buhouth st., Dokki Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2 National Research Center

3 Department of Biomedical Sciences. Faculty of pharmacy. Omar Almukhtar University. Libya

4 Therapeutic Chemistry Dept. National Research Centre, Elbehouth St. Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Ephedra alata family Ephedraceae is a Libyan medicinal plants that are traditionally used in folk medicine for treating many diseases. This study designed to evaluate the phytochemical investigation of its methanolic extract and to analyze their phenolic and flavonoid constituents by using HPLC chromatography.

The ameliorative effect of the methanolic extract of Ephedra alata veill leaves towards the CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male Wister rats was investigated. The CCl4-treated rats showed a significant decline in the studied serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), albumin (ALB) as well as the hepatic levels of glutathione (GSH) and activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) , glutathione reductase (GR), elevation in the levels of total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), globulin (G), total bilirubin (TBil) , alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALAT and ASAT, ALP) and the hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA).

The HPLC chromatography revealed the presence of Phenolic acids which identified as gallic, chlorogenic, catechin, , caffeic, syringic, ellagic, coumaric, cinnamic, ferulic acid, taxifolin beside kaempferol, methyl gallate , pyrocatechol and vanillin. Biochemical investigation showed that the administration of Ephedra alata methanol extract significantly enhanced all the examined biochemical parameters. Moreover, results indicated that Wistar rats exposed to high doses of CCl4 could experience both certain metabolic changes and liver damage. The investigation on tissue histology was also included. The bioactive phenolic compounds in methanol extract of Ephedra alata, which scavenges free radicals, enhances liver functions, and normalizes the histological architecture of the liver, are therefore may be promising candidates for treating CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity


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