Comparative Study Of Effects Of Benzydamine Hcl, Propolis Extract And Ginger Extract In Treatment Of Induced Oral Ulcers Of Albino Rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Dentistry, October 6 University, Sixth of October City, Egypt

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, National Research Centre, Dokki

3 Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

4 Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental medicine, Egyptian Russian University

5 Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt


Oral mucositis (OM) is a multi-etiological inflammatory condition. It is very painful and complicating patient’s life, hence it was mandatory to find natural food supplements to manage this condition. Medicinal plants have been introduced in medical field as a potent anti-oxidant in co-treatment of this condition successfully. Ginger roots (Zingiber officinalis Roscoe) are one of the most anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory plants with respect to its phytochemical constituents. This work aimed to the evaluation of histological and immuno-histochemical effect of natural product; Ginger oil extract in the healing of induced ulcers in Albino rat′s buccal mucosa. It also aimed to compare the obtained effect with that of marketed product; Benzydamine HCL spray (BBC, synthetic product) and Propolis sprays (Natural product). Forty eight adult male albino rats weighing 200-250 grams were divided into five groups. The Negative (-ve) and Positive (+ve) Control Groups: six rats in each, the first kept healthy and the second subjected to ulcer induction in the buccal mucosa. Three therapeutic groups 12 rats in each, Benzydamine hydrochloride Group (B) Gp: treated by BBC oral spray (3mg/animal/8 hours), Propolis (P) GP: treated by topical application of Propolis oral spray (3mg/animal/8 hours), Ginger Group (G) Gp: treated by topical application of Ginger oil spray (3mg/animal/8 hours). Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups A&B in which rats was sacrificed at 7 and 10 days following ulcer induction respectively. The buccal mucosa specimens were prepared and stained by H&E and immuno histochemical markers (Anti-PCNA) then examined by light microscope. The yield of the ginger oil resulting from the cold press method was 12% (v/w). Twenty four compounds were obtained after the GC/MS analysis with the identification of 20 compounds. 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, oleic and palmitic acids TMS derivative (34.56%, 26.45% and 14.95%) were the major fatty acids, respectively. Histopathological examination of +ve control Gp revealed atrophy and complete necrosis of the epithelium overlying degenerated connective tissue (CT) with high infiltration of inflammatory cells and dilated BVs. These changes were markedly alleviated in therapeutic groups (B), (P) & (G) Gps. immunohistochemical results supported the histological results which showed significant statistically increased value of of PCNA expressions with relative increase in (G) Gp compared to (B) and (P) Gps at day 7 and 10. From the results, we can concluded that oral ulceration caused tissue degeneration as a result to the inflammatory responses leading to epithelial degeneration which was approved in +ve control Gp. Therapeutic application of BBC, Propolis and Ginger oil sprays markedly improved histological destruction revealed in +ve control Gp (confirming anti-inflammatory role of each of them). However, implement of natural herbs as Ginger oil resulted in maximum improvement compared to other therapeutic groups. Ginger oil can be used usefully as a topical drug for the healing of the oral mucositis.


Main Subjects

Volume 66, Issue 13 - Serial Number 13
Special Issue: Applied Chemistry for Greener Life and Sustainability
December 2023
Pages 1181-1192
  • Receive Date: 09 May 2023
  • Revise Date: 13 June 2023
  • Accept Date: 18 June 2023