Document Type : Review Articles
Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, 33El-Bohouth St. (Former El-Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza, Egypt
Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth St., Dokki, 12622 Giza, Egypt
Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, School of Engineering, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
a Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, School of Engineering, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK b Nanoscience and Materials Institute of Aragón (INMA) CSIC-Universidad de
Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
Department of Water Pollution Control, Environmental Science Division, National Research Centre
Blending as a modification method of membranes has gained much attention recently in the membrane industry, membrane material, and process development. The major preferred criterion in any membrane process/materials is to possess high performance in terms of flux and selectivity, as well as reduced fouling parameters. Polyethersulfone (PES) membranes have been widely used for separation and purification purposes due to their chemical stability, thermal stability, and outstanding oxidative property. However, the PES membrane itself is susceptible to fouling (which causes a catastrophic loss in flux) via adsorbing the pollutants either on the membrane external surface or within the membrane pores due to the intrinsic hydrophobic features of PES. Hence, blending PES membranes with different hydrophilizing agents has been demonstrated. Given the importance of the modifying material for PES membranes and their operation, we decided to dedicate this review solely to up-to-date used additives blended with PES. In the first section, a general introduction related to membrane technology-water, problem nexus has been mentioned. While in the second section, a wide range of hydrophilizing agents (e.g. amphiphilic polymers, GO-based nanofillers, and GO-based nanofillers combined with pore-forming agents) added to PES membranes were reviewed.