Optimization of Pagoda (Clerodendrum paniculatum L.) Extraction Based By Analytical Factorial Design Approach, Its Phytochemical Compound, and Cytotoxicity Activity

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia

2 Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi, Makassar 90242, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia

3 Department of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia

4 aDepartment of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia

5 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia

6 Departement of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia


One of the successful determinants of active compounds extraction from plant material depends mainly on the extraction procedures, including the type of solvents, plant materials, and extraction techniques used in the extraction procedure. This research aimed to optimize Pagoda’s extraction yields (Clerodendrum paniculatum L.) using several types of solvents and extraction techniques and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of extracts obtained. The various solvents include water, methanol, hexane, and ethanol, while the extraction techniques used were maceration, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and reflux. The flowers, leaves, and stems were also extracted to represent parts of the plants. Screening of secondary metabolites was carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), while cytotoxic activity was tested against Artemia salina. The highest yield of extract was obtained using water, followed by methanol > ethanol > hexane. The most effective extraction methods were the reflux method, followed by MAE and maceration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the linear model of plant parts, solvents, and interactions between factors showed significant effects on yield (P < 0.05). The studied extracts contain secondary metabolites of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. These extracts were also very toxic to Artemia salina; therefore, they can be developed as anticancer.


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