The efficiency of bank filtration to remove chemical pollutants in Egypt: field and batch studies

Document Type : Original Article


1 Holding Company for Water and Wastewater, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

3 Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, Egypt.

4 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt


Bank filtration (BF) is a low-cost water treatment technology in which surface water contaminants are removed through the biochemical and physical process taking place during the filtration process. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this technique to produce high drinking water quality in Egypt. In this study, field-works was conducted, and samples were collected from the River Nile and the bank filtrate wells at Sultana Town, El Menyia Governorate. The samples were analyzed and the chemical pollutants (e.g., pesticides, pharmaceuticals, inorganic) were determined. Moreover, batch studies were conducted to get insight on the mechanical removal of the organic contaminants and to assess the impact of temperature (15, 25, 30 ºC) and redox condition ( oxic, anoxic) conditions on the removal. The results revealed that bank filtration can remove the inorganic pollutants such as ammonia and nitrate efficiently. However, its effectiveness to remove organic pollutants is highly dependent on the temperature; higher removal was obtained at a higher temperature. To conclude, bank filtration is an effective technique to remove chemical contaminants and to produce high water quality, and it is highly recommended to extend the usage of this technique in Egypt.


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