Assessment of Toxicological Effect of Ethyl Formate on Male Albino Rats after Fumigating Dates in a Prototype

Document Type : Review Articles


1 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 21545 El-Shatby, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2 Department of Pesticides Toxicity to Mammals and Aquatic Organisms, Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, 3751311 Dokki, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

3 Home Economics in food and food science Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

4 Mammalia & Aquatic Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, 21616 -El-Sabahia, Alexandria, Egypt


Ethyl formate (EF) was selected as a promising alternative to methyl bromide, a harmful substance for humans and the environment, against the common insect pests that attack Egyptian dates in the storehouse. EF, carbon dioxide (CO2), and their EF/CO2 mixture (16.7%: 83.3%) at a concentration of 420 g/m3 were tested on El-Wady semi-dry and Ghazaly dry dates in the designed prototype (fumigation pilot chamber) to evaluate their insecticidal activity. After 24 hours of exposure, the treated dates were used to study the toxicological effect of ethyl formate on male albino rats. The rats were fed on treated El-Wady and Ghazaly dates for 28 days. Rats fed on El Wady showed a substantial gain in body weight of 52.6% and 40.8% in the control, and EF/CO2 mixture compared with 34.8%, and 34% for Ghazaly. Results showed that the EF, CO2, and EF/CO2 mixture significantly didn’t affect the hematological parameters: red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values. Hepatic and renal toxicity were monitored by measuring blood biochemical parameters. The activity levels of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) were 33.10, 172.50, and 346.40 U/L, respectively in El Wady EF/CO2 treatment group. While in Ghazaly EF/CO2 treatment group, the corresponding activity levels were determined to be 31.90, 163.00, and 358.10 U/L, respectively. No significant change was notable between treatments in the levels of liver enzymes, bilirubin, total protein, urea, and creatinine. Histological investigation validated the preceding data, showing that the liver and kidney had normal and pathology-free histoarchitecture. The findings concluded that no risk is associated with consuming El-Wady and Ghazaly dates 24 hours after fumigating with an EF/CO2 mixture


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 23 April 2024
  • Receive Date: 09 March 2024
  • Revise Date: 17 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 23 April 2024