The main types of derivatives of plant matter and agricultural waste used as bio-adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals and dyes: a review

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Hassan First University of Settat, Faculty of Sciences & Techniques, CAE laboratory, Settat, Morocco.

2 Laboratory LaSTI, National School of Applied Sciences, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco.

3 Hassan First University of Settat, Faculty of Sciences & Techniques, IMII laboratory, Settat, Morocco.

4 Hassan First University of Settat, Safety Dynamics Research Laboratory, Settat, Morocco.


Bio-adsorptions are the most important water treatment products in the world for research in water treatment and the environment, thanks to their effectiveness, simplicity of manufacturing, profitability and low cost compared to other adsorbents. In this context, the present review aims to direct researchers interested in bio-sorption towards derivatives of plant materials and agricultural waste, which present more advantages, such as competitive efficiency, renewal of the raw material, possibility regeneration of the adsorbent several times by a simple treatment, and contribution to sustainability. And in the same context, this review organizes bio-adsorbents derived from plant material into four categories (raw, chemically treated, biochar, activated carbon), depending on the type of treatment of the raw material, and the degree of effectiveness, and presents the most recent examples.


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