Fabrication and characterization of function-graded nanomaterials (Al/Al2O3) and (Al/Ni/Al2O3) using the sputtering technique

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 12613, Egypt.

2 Mining, Petroleum, and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 12613, Egypt.


Two aluminum functionally graded nanomaterials (FGNMs), sustainable and echo-environmentally friendly, Al/Al2O3 (AA) and Al/Ni/Al2O3 (ANA), were fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique on an Al substrate. The properties were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, mapping for elemental distribution, AFM, FTIR, and spectrophotometer. Also, the nanoindentation (NIN), electrochemical behavior in 3.5%NaCl, and the wettability test were studied. The SEM micrographs show a homogenous layer for both AA-FGNM and ANA-FGNM. The sustainable solar cell material AA-FGNM has high nano-hardness. It is hydrophobic, whereas ANA-FGNM is hydrophilic. The AA-FGNM provides a high selectivity (absorbance/emittance (α/ε)) of 0.967/0.18, contrasted to 0.943/0.32 for the ANA-FGNM. This combination of properties makes AA-FGNM a good candidate for solar cell and mechanical applications due to its low nanoindentation, whereas ANA-FGNM is a good candidate for marine applications due to good corrosion resistance. The ANA-FGNM offers superior corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl, which has the lowest corrosion rate (0.005 mm/y) as compared with the AA-FGNM deposited layer.


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