Enhancement the Quality of Treated Effluent Using Natural Materials as Coagulant: A Review

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Joint Ph. D. Program in Water Technology, The Islamic University of Gaza & Al Azhar University-Gaza, Gaza, Palestine.

2 Professor of Environmental Engineering, The Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine.


Natural coagulants have proven its coagulation efficacy as reported in a significant number of research articles. However, the acceptance and massive application of natural coagulants in the water industry is still low. It is important to conduct a review to rise the potential of using natural coagulants by highlighting the efforts and the current development for refining the capability of natural coagulants, including showing the compatibility of natural coagulants with other treatment technologies in hybrid/integrated treatment procedure; the modification of natural coagulants for the possibility of hybridizing natural coagulants with additional kinds of coagulants; marked enhancement in coagulation performance efficiency; the improvement of extraction and purification methods for high purity of natural coagulants and the synthesis of multifunctional natural coagulants. However, the present progress of natural coagulants is quite encouraging, perspectives from sustainability assessment showed that the acceptance and commercialization of natural coagulants are stuck by two main challenges: feasibility and practicality of real field application and sustainability of using natural coagulants commanding technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects. Upcoming research focusing on these subjects may assist to clarify the uncertainties shrouded on natural coagulants and at the same time modifying the water industry to be more sustainable.


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