Mixed pd(II) complexes based on Cefadroxil drug: synthesis, characterization and biomedical applications

Document Type : Original Article


1 Basic Science Department, Modern Academy for Engineering and Technology, Egypt

2 chemistry department, faculty oi science, Cairo university

3 Faculty of science, Cairo university


Cefadroxil (Cef) plays a crucial role as a pharmaceutical agent in treating various ailments. Its widespread application in diverse pharmaceutical formulations has prompted the development of innovative Pd (II) coordination ternary metal complexes. These complexes are synthesized by employing Cefadroxil as the promising ligand, complemented by aromatic amines and bipyridine to form mixed ligands chelating compounds.

The stereochemical characteristics of these novel ternary metal complexes have been thoroughly investigated through a comprehensive analytical approach. This analysis encompasses elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, determination of melting points, conductivity measurements, mass spectrometry, and thermal analysis techniques such as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Through these methods, a detailed understanding of the structural attributes of the complexes has been attained, contributing to the advancement of knowledge in this field.

Moreover, the complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial efficacy against various microorganisms, encompassing Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as fungi like Candida albicans, Aspergillus Niger, and Aspergillus Ochraceous. The assessment included a comparison with established benchmarks in the field, namely Ampicillin and Gentamicin for antibacterial activity, and Nystatin for antifungal activity. Furthermore, the paper delves into the anticancer attributes of the ligands and their respective metal complexes through viability assays targeting human cancer cells (MCF-7 cells).