Synthesis of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Powder from Trough Clam Shells (Mactridae) by Wet Precipitation Method for Biomedical Applications

Document Type : Original Article


1 Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2 Refractories, Ceramics and Building materials Department, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

3 Refractories, Ceramics and Building materials Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt


The conversion of Trough Clam Shells waste into useful hydroxyapatite, through inexpensive eco-friendly methods has economic and environmental benefits. Hydroxyapatite (HAp), which has high bioactivity, excellent osseoconduction, and good biocompatibility, is the best choice for biomedical applications. In this work, trough clam shells (Mactridae) are used as a natural source containing beneficial elements for bone growth to produce nano-hydroxyapatite powder by the wet precipitation method through mixed the prepared 0.5 M of calcium hydroxide and 0.3 M of phosphoric acid. Then, sintered HAp discs were produced using a solid-state method at a sintering temperature of 1275 °C for 2 h. The produced HAp was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the phase composition, morphology, particle size, thermal behavior and elemental composition, respectively. XRD and FTIR showed that the prepared powder is composed of pure hydroxyapatiteand possess a particle size ranging between 38.51 and 99.92 nm. SEM with EDS showed that HAp particles have semi- rounded shape together with a maintaining interconnected porosity of ≈ 5.3307%. The hardness and bending strengths were found to be ≈856.35 MPa and ≈38.73 MPa respectively. The bioactivity of prepared HAP is tested by immersing the samples in stimulated body fluid solution (SBF). The formation of a rich bone-like apatite layer on the disc's surface was detected after the immersion for 28 days. The prepared HAp was found to be suitable for bone tissue engineering.


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