Sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Bardawil Lagoon (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks

Document Type : Original Article


1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2 Marine Pollution and Fisheries Biology, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries - Alexandria


Bardawil Lagoon is one of Egypt's most notable coastal Mediterranean lakes. This research looks at the prevalence and risk of heavy metals in sediments. In all, eight locations around Bardawil Lake were chosen to collect sediment samples. The following is a ranking of the measured mean concentrations of heavy metals in the examined lagoon. The order is Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni. Ecological risk was evaluated in sediment using single and multi-elemental standard indices. Metals were ordered from highest to lowest based on their mean enrichment factors (EF): Cd > Pb > Cu > Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for Cd over the studied area varied widely, from clean to moderately polluted too extremely contaminated. The bulk of the sites had DC values below 32 (i.e., substantial DC), with the greatest values found at sites 1, 4, and 10. The highest average DC values were 47.39, 45.70, and 50.95. Cd > Pb > Cu > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr; these are the heavy metals with the highest to lowest mean values of the ecological risk factor (Er). Possible ecological risk index (PERI) values varied from 445.13 at site 7 to 1441.93 at site 10. Reducing the buildup of heavy metals in Bardawil Lake will require cutting-edge treatment technology and careful monitoring of contamination in the lake's water and sediments.


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