Ameliorative Impacts of Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Parapholis incurva Ethanolic Extracts on Sodium Fluoride Induced Pathological Alterations in the Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Zoology department-science faculty- Suez university- Suez- Egypt

2 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt.

3 Chemistry of Natural Compounds Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street, Dokki,Giza 12622, Egypt

4 Pathology Department, Medical Research and Clinical Studies Institute, National Research Centre

5 Zoology Department , faculty of sciences , Suez university , Egypt


The present study aimed to demonstrate the ameliorative impacts of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (D. aegyptium) and Parapholis incurva (P. incurva) alcoholic extracts on hormonal, histological, and ultrastructural changes in rat thyroid gland induced hypothyroidism by daily oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) (5 mg/kg) for 28 days. Forty-Two adult male albino rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups (7 rats each): the control group, NaF group (5 mg/kg/d), D. aegyptium group (100 mg/kg/d), P. incurva group (100 mg/kg/d), NaF + D. aegyptium group and NaF + P. incurva group. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were subjected to hormonal assay for triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and calcium were assessed. Specimens of thyroid gland tissues were processed for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and scanning electron microscopy examinations. Further chemical profiling of the both extracts were determined using HPLC. Phytochemically, 14 phenolic compounds including 10 phenolic and 4 flavonoids were identified from D. aegyptium while 13 phenolics were identified from P. incurva comprising 8 phenolic and 5 flavonoids. NaF induced significant alterations in hormonal (decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels and increase in serum TSH levels) and antioxidant status, as well as, calcium levels when compared with control group. Histopathological (many empty follicles lined by flat cells, hemorrhage and disrupted basement membrane), histomorphometric, histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural ( thyroid calcification) alterations were also recorded, which all were markedly improved in groups that received D. aegyptium or P. incurva extract combined with NaF. D. aegyptium and P. incurva extracts are useful in combating thyroid gland calcification and toxicity induced by NaF due to their high flavonoids and phenolic compound content.


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