The essential oils isolated from the fruit of Ficus carica induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis of human liver cancer cells

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq


Ficus carica is an edible fruit that has numerous health benefits for humans. The essential oils from ficus carica fruit (FCF) were isolated using a hot distillation procedure with water (FCFW) and hexane (FCFH) solvents, and the chemical contents were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the anticancer activity against human liver cancer (HepG2). According to gas chromatography analysis and the NIST library, the chemical compositions of FCFW were main seven recognized compounds belong to chemical class of nitrogenous, aldehyde, acid, and ketone compounds, while FCFH was main two known compounds, belongs to chemical class of aldehyde, and nitrogenous compounds. The cytotoxicity test showed that FCFW and FCFH have similar IC50 values (40 %v/v). The IC50 value was utilized to detect cell cycle arrest in S phase for FCFW, reduced reactive oxygen species, and late apoptosis. These findings demonstrated that FCFW essential oils were more effective than FCFH essential oils. Merit investigations may lead to an increase in the medicinal relevance of FCFW essential oils.


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