Lactose Derivatives: Properties, Preparation and Their Applications in Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

Document Type : Review Articles


1 Dairy Dept., Food Industries and Nutrition Research Institute, National Research Centre, Cairo12622, Egypt

2 Medical Physiology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt


Lactose is a unique disaccharide that exists in mammal’s milk, being synthesized from galactose and glucose in the mammary gland. It presents in three anomeric forms: monohydrate α-lactose, anhydrous β-lactose, and amorphous lactose. Lactoseis used as a source for many lactose derivatives like lactulose, lactitol, galacto-oligosacchrides and lactobionic acid. Lactose derivatives can be obtained through different processes including isomerization, oxidation,electrochemical and biotechnological (biocatalytic–microbial and enzymatic) processes. Lactose derivatives can be applied in a wide range of dairy, non-dairy as a stabilizer, gelling agent, antioxidant, aging inhibitor and emulsifier. Pharmaceuticals applications for many health disorders such as hepatic encephalopathy, constipation, diabetes, hepatic malignancy and obesity have been reported. In this review, we will focus on lactose derivatives, their properties, method of preparation and applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


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