Comparative Study of Peels Essential Oil Constituents of some Citrus Species

Document Type : Original Article


1 Chemistry of Medicinal Plants Department, Division of Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries, National Research Centre, Buhouth St. (Former El Tahrir St.), 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts in Al Mukhwah, Albaha University, Saudi Arabia.

3 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.


Peels of Citrus as byproducts are considered a valuable source of various bioactive compounds such as essential oils and flavonoids with vital properties. So, the study goal is to determine which are the most suitable methods of extraction of the essential oils of three Citrus species peels C.aurantifolia (CA), C.limon (CL) and C.sinensis (CS). A comparative study of conventional techniques; hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (SE), and innovative techniques; microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), were used for extraction of the essential oils from the three Citrus species peels. The chemical composition with percentages of all constituents was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopic analyses (GC/MS) of different oil peels. The GC/MS analyses results indicated that both HD and SE techniques were more desirable for the extraction, and they gave a higher percentage of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (85.87% and 46.69%, respectively). These ingredients are considered the basic ingredients in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In contrast, MAE and UAE techniques were more efficient for extracting hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and fatty acids from different essential oils peels. The results proved that the use of different extraction methods leads to different yields of essential oils with the highest yield with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) techniques for three Citrus species peels (CA), (CL) and (CS) in percentages of 1.52 %, 2 %, 2.8 %, respectively.


Main Subjects