Document Type : Review Articles
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Sharkia, Egypt
Anthranilic diamide is a new commercial group of insecticides that target insect ryanodine receptors, causing uncontrolled calcium ion release and depletion, which prevents muscular contraction. Due to the high advantages of diamide over other insecticides groups, it has been applied to control a variety of insect pests on a wide range of agricultural crops. The development of this group has encouraged agricultural producers to increase their reliance on it to protect crops from pest damage, resulting in increase residues in agricultural products. To ensure food safety, it is necessary to carefully inspect for diamide residues in food commodities. QuEChERS method for extraction and clean up of diamide insecticide residues was optimized to be used with a variety of analytical techniques, including HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. Recoveries in food samples ranged from 73 to 112% with limits of quantification 0.5 - 2 µg kg-1 and a half-life around 1.5 days. More advanced and sensitive methods were developed and optimized for detecting the amounts of diamide residues in food samples and related environmental matrices, to manage their impact on human health and environmental safety. Immunoassays, which depend on specific action and interaction between antigen and antibody, have been developed as a rapid and cost-effective technique for specific monitoring insecticide residues in various food and environmental samples. Advances in immunoassay convert enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into a very useful tool in residue detection of diamide insecticides in food as addressed in this review article.