Production of functional Pan Bread from Mixture of Tiger Nut Flour, Milk Permeate and Hard Wheat Flour

Document Type : Original Article


1 Food Technology Dept., National Research Centre, El-Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2 Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.


The effect of using tiger nut flour germinated (TNFG) and milk permeate supplement with probiotic bacteria to improve the functional properties of pan bread was explored. Hard wheat flour extraction 72% (HWF) in the pan bread formulation was replaced at three levels, 10, 20, and 30% with tiger nut flour germinated (TNFG). Pan bread containing only HWF or/ and milk permeate was used as control. Prepared Pan bread were analyzed for their rheological properties, proximate composition, physical properties (weight, volume and specific volume) color, sensory evaluation, texture and microbiological analysis.
Water absorption, arrival time, dough-development time, mixing tolerance index and dough-weakening were significantly increased, however dough-stability was decreased parallel with an increment of the WF-substitution level using the TNFG and Milk Permeate. Incorporation of TNFG resulted in a significant increase in fiber and ash contents and in a decrease in protein content. Loaves volume and specific volume decreased as the TNFG level significantly increased and the significant decrease was observed at 30% replacement compared to the other levels. The crust and crumb of pan bread samples supplement with different levels of TNFG had lower L* and b* values and the reduction increased as the fortification level increased. With the increase in the level of GTNF in the formulation, the sensory scores for taste, aroma, Crumb grain texture, crust color, crumb color, symmetry of shape and Overall acceptability of pan bread decreased. Measurement of pan bread texture showed that Springiness, Cohesiveness and resilience values decreased when TNF content in the pan bread formulation in‌creased. The total viable counts to all samples ranged from 6.0x102 to 7.2 x103 cfu/g however, the total fungi counts ranged from 2.0 x101cfu/g to 2.2 x102cfu/g. The bacterial pathogens including (Coliforms group, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus) were not detected in all treatments throughout the storage period. The results indicated that added10% TNFG was the most superior for production of Pan Bread with no adverse effect on the physical and sensory properties. The object of this study is to produce high nutritive probiotic bread supplement with different levels of TNFG and Milk Permeate.


Main Subjects

  • Receive Date: 12 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 22 September 2021
  • Accept Date: 03 October 2021
  • First Publish Date: 03 October 2021