Extending the Shelf Life of Ghee Using Garden Cress and Jojoba Oils as Alternatives of Synthetic Antioxidants

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Dairy science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 3 El Gamaa St., 12613 Giza, Egypt


The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of garden cress (GCO) and jojoba (JO) oils compared to butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) to extend ghee shelf-life under accelerated conditions (80°C). Both oils were added individually to ghee at concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 ppm while BHA was added at 200 ppm. Oils were examined for some chemical properties as well as their phenolic components while ghee samples either incorporated with BHA or both oils were examined for their free fatty acids, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid, conjugated dienes, and radical scavenging activity (%) during storage at 80°C. JO had a high content of vanillin, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, and kaempferol compared to GCO. Both oils exhibited varying antioxidant potential. Statistically, ghee incorporated with BHA had the highest significant differences in antioxidant activity followed by JO (200 - 300 ppm) and GCO (300 ppm) which have proven to be effective in delaying the undesirable changes in the ghee. Overall, jojoba oil followed by garden cress oil offer a promising option as alternatives of synthetic antioxidants to extend ghee shelf-life under accelerated conditions.


Main Subjects

  • Receive Date: 29 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 29 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 06 September 2021
  • First Publish Date: 06 September 2021