Evaluation of traditional, starch nanoparticle and its hybrid composite for the Consolidation of Tracing Paper

Document Type : Original Article


1 Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt

2 Conservation Center, National Archives of Egypt. Cairo, Egypt


Tracing paper was used since the 12th century. The deterioration of tracing paper occurs as a result of external factors (inappropriate environmental conditions), or internal factors (such as manufacture process). The manufacturing process plays a significant role in the deterioration process since the preparation of tracing paper includes impregnating with oils or resins, heavy beating of the pulp, and treating the paper with chemicals such as sulfuric acid, and zinc chloride. The consolidation process is vital in the conservation of tracing paper to increase its strength and resistance against improper surrounding environmental conditions. Starch in its traditional form had been used as an adhesive for tracing paper since the last century. This paper aims to evaluate the use of starch in its traditional form and nanoscale form in improving the properties of 4 types of tracing paper. Mechanical properties, change of color, pH value, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and investigation of the surface morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the evaluation process. Thermal aging at 100 oC was used for the aging of treated and untreated tracing paper. The results revealed that the starch nanoparticles dissolved in water were the best consolidant for impregnated tracing paper. Starch nanoparticles with carboxymethyl cellulose dissolved in water were the best consolidant for the two types of genuine vegetable parchment paper. Starch nanoparticles dissolved in acetone with carboxymethyl cellulose were the best consolidant for modern tracing paper.


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