Chemical Characterization of Algae Oil and Optimization of Transesterification Parameters for Boosting of Algal Biodiesel Production from Spirulina Wild Stuff Explored in the Natural Habitation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Maharaja Institute of Technology, Thandavapura, Affiliated with Visvesvaraya Technological University, (Belagavi), Karnataka

2 University Department of Chemistry, RANCHI UNIVERSITY, RANCHI-834 001, INDIA


The investigation on standardizing the parameters for achieving biodiesel production from a distinctive approach where the identified wild stuff of algal biomass (Spirulina maxima) grown at its natural conditions was considered. The composed algal wild stuff was subjected to extraction of the crude lipids using a flawless solvent system coupled with the soxhlet method. The accumulation of lipid contents was expansively analyzed and the oil obtained from lipid content was subjected to transesterification using both acid (H2SO4) and base (KOH) catalysts for its analogous fatty ester which is the potential way out to the high viscosity elements that ultimately converted algal oil into biodiesel. Further, the optimization of transesterification parameters for boosting algal biodiesel production at variable reaction factors was carried-out with respect to; molar ratio, temperature, reaction time, stirring speed, and amount of promising catalysts were also evaluated. In the acid esterification process, the acid value (AV) was reduced from 11.43 to 0.52 mg KOH/g of the feedstock and, the most favorable conditions for the highest yield of esterified oil were found at the molar ratio 8:1, temperature 650C, catalyst concentration 1% (wt%) H 2 SO 4 and the stirring speed of 600rpm for a reaction time of 90th minute. Whereas in the alkali transesterification, the optimum biodiesel (96.6%) was achieved, and promising conditions were recorded at molar ratio 6:1, temperature 60OC, stirring speed of 500 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.3% (wt%) of KOH for a reaction time of 60th minute. The produced algal biodiesel was evaluated in contrast to ASTM standard specification and all the results within standards limit were observed. The Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were also determined and the compositional analysis of crude glycerol was found to be significant in crude glycerol. Besides, the work-out on the effectiveness of capital and operating costs are found to be rational and this certainly makes algae fuel production commercially viable. However, the novelty of this study is to explore the wild stuff of S.maxima algae from its natural habitat for biodiesel production is significantly cost-effective which is possible by omitting the algal culturing segment in vitro.


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